Type of mineral flotation agent

Flotation agent

When using various agents to adjust the flotation beneficiation and flotation medium was physicochemical properties, thereby expanding the difference between the pro-sulfur aqueous gold or gold-bearing minerals and gangue minerals, so that a better separation, to improve gold The purpose of the recovery rate. Commonly used flotation agents fall into three categories: collectors , foaming agents, and conditioning agents.

First, the collector

In the natural world, except for coal , graphite , sulfur, talc and molybdenite , the mineral particles are hydrophobic and have natural floatability. Most minerals are hydrophilic, as are gold minerals. The addition of a chemical agent can change the hydrophilicity of the mineral particles to produce a hydrophobicity that makes them floatable. This agent is often referred to as a collector. Collectors are typically polar collectors and non-polar collectors. The polar collector consists of a polar group that interacts with the surface of the mineral particles and a non-polar group that acts as a hydrophobic. When such collectors are adsorbed on the surface of the ore particles, their molecules or ions are oriented, the polar groups are oriented toward the surface of the mineral particles, and the non-polar groups form a hydrophobic membrane outward, thereby making the ore position floatable.

Gold associated with sulfide minerals such as copper , lead , zinc , iron, etc., commonly used in the flotation of organic thio compounds as a collector. For example, alkyl (B, C, D, pentyl, etc.) sodium dithiocarbonate ( Potassium), also known as xanthate, commonly known as xanthate. For example, NaS2C·OCH2·CH3, in the flotation of gold-containing polymetallic ores, ethyl xanthate and butyl xanthate are often used. Alkyldithio phosphate or a salt thereof, such as (RO) 2PSSH, wherein R is an alkyl group, commonly known as black powder.

Alkyl dithiocarbamate and ester derivatives of xanthate are also commonly used collectors for sulfide minerals. It is also a commonly used collector for flotation of gold-containing polymetallic sulphide ore, often used simultaneously with xanthate.

The molecules of the non-ionic polar collector are not dissociated, such as sulfur-containing esters, and the non-polar collectors are hydrocarbon oils (neutral oils) such as kerosene, diesel, and the like.

Second, the foaming agent

The surface active molecule having a hydrophilic group and a hydrophobic group is adsorbed at the water-air interface to reduce the surface tension of the aqueous solution, so that the air filled in the water is easily dispersed into bubbles and stabilize the bubbles. The foaming agent and the collector are combined to adsorb on the surface of the mineral particles to float the ore particles. Commonly used foaming agents are: pine oil, commonly known as No. 2 oil, phenolic acid mixed fatty alcohol, isomeric hexanol or drunk, ether drunk and various esters.

Third, the adjustment agent

Adjusters can be divided into five categories: (1) pH adjusters. It is used to adjust the pH of the slurry to control the surface characteristics of the mineral, the chemical composition of the slurry and the action conditions of various other agents to improve the flotation effect. The pH of the slurry is also adjusted during the cyanidation process. Commonly used are lime, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid. In the case of gold selection, the most commonly used regulators are lime and sulfuric acid. (2) Activator. It can enhance the ability of minerals to interact with collectors, so that non-floating minerals are activated and float. The gold-containing lead-copper oxide ore is activated by using sodium sulfide, and then floated with a collector such as xanthate. (3) Inhibitors. Improve the hydrophilicity of minerals and prevent the action of minerals and collectors, so that their floatability is inhibited. For example, in the preferential flotation process, lime is used to inhibit pyrite, zinc sulfate and cyanide are used to inhibit sphalerite, water glass is used to inhibit silicate gangue minerals, and organic substances such as starch and tannin (tannin) are used as inhibitors. Achieve the purpose of multi-metal separation flotation. (4) Flocculant. The mineral fine particles are aggregated into large particles to accelerate the sedimentation speed in water; the flocculation-de-sludge and flocculation-flotation are carried out by selective flocculation. Commonly used flocculants are polyacrylamide and starch. (5) Dispersing agent. Prevent the accumulation of fine ore particles, in a monomer state, the effect is exactly the opposite of the flocculant, commonly used water glass, phosphate and so on.

The type and amount of flotation agent vary with the nature of the ore and the flotation conditions and process characteristics. The test unit can be used to provide the prescription (or the pharmaceutical system), which can also be changed according to the above various conditions during the production practice. .

Fourth, flotation equipment

The flotation equipment is mainly a flotation machine and other equipment for implementing the flotation process. The slurry is stirred and aerated. Under the action of various flotation agents, the ore particles adhere to the bubbles, the bubbles rise, form a mineralized foam layer, and are scraped or overflowed by the scraper. This series of flotation processes are all in the flotation machine. Completed in the middle. The flotation machine is mostly made up of multiple tanks connected in series.

According to the method of stirring and aeration, different flotation machines can be divided into five types: (1) mechanical agitation type. There are centrifugal impellers, and some types are star-shaped rotors and rod-shaped rotors. The agitator rotates at high speed in the flotation tank to drive The slurry flows, creating a negative pressure in the impeller chamber to draw in air. (2) Inflatable mechanical stirring type. In addition to mechanical agitation, the flotation tank is filled with low-pressure air. (3) Inflatable type. It is stirred by air and generates bubbles, such as a flotation column and a foam separation device. (4) Gas precipitation type. Using the pressure reduction method or the first method of reducing the pressure to normal pressure, the dissolved air in the slurry is precipitated to form microbubbles. (5) Pressure dissolved gas type. The charged air is pre-dissolved in water by high pressure, and then precipitated in a flotation cell under normal pressure to form a large amount of microbubbles.

At present, the most commonly used flotation machine in China's gold concentrator is the domestic mechanical agitation flotation machine.

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