Building a safety-guarantee society with the core objective of public life and property security, social stability and order, and continuous operation of economic and social systems is a must for achieving the goals of a strong nation. In the medium and long-term development strategy research of engineering science and technology, public safety as a cross-disciplinary research topic, facing the goals of a strong country with science and technology and a well-to-do society, and combining China's national conditions and development needs, carries out public security science and technology development strategy research and path design. This article explores the connotation of building a security-safety society, introduces the research and development path of the medium-long-term development strategy of public security technology with the aim of building an all-dimensional, three-dimensional public safety system, and proposes the general ideas for the development of public security science and technology in China. Strategic concept.
Public safety is the core goal of ensuring the safety of people's lives and property, social stability and order, and the continuous operation of economic and social systems. The concept of safety development is an important development concept in the new era. Building a safety-guaranteed society is a must for achieving the goals of a strong country.
Since public safety was included as an important area in the national economic and social development plan and national science and technology planning in 2003, China's public safety science and technology level and guarantee capacity have been rapidly improved, with remarkable results.
The national emergency platform system was basically completed, and emergency response capacity building was greatly enhanced, enhancing the ability to handle and manage emergencies.
The timeliness and accuracy of natural disaster monitoring, forecasting and early warning have been significantly improved, social security risk prevention and control networks have basically taken shape, rapid response and on-site disposal capabilities have been significantly enhanced, and the integrated public security protection and socialization trends have become increasingly evident.
The complete set of technology and equipment systems are exported to foreign countries, and the international technology competitiveness has been significantly improved. For example, the ECU911 technology system has played a significant role in the rescue of the 7.8-magnitude earthquake in Ecuador and reconstruction after the earthquake.
With the rapid advancement of China's industrialization, informatization, and urbanization, the trend of public security incidents that are prone to frequent, frequent, and frequent occurrences has become increasingly apparent. The total number of public safety problems has remained high and the complexity has increased. Potential risks and new hidden dangers have increased. The increasing difficulty of control poses new challenges to emergency response and public safety protection. It is a major and urgent historical mission to improve the public security system, comprehensively improve public security support capabilities, and build a security-guaranteed society.
Public security situation and development history at home and abroad
Public security is the prerequisite and basis for the sound development of the economy and society and the normal operation of state management in all countries of the world. In the huge impact of the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001, public safety was highly valued and was raised by countries around the world to the height of national strategies. The United States, Britain, Japan, Germany and other countries have all constructed emergency incident management and response systems, formulated relevant laws and various types of contingency plans to ensure effective response to major emergencies.
The United States established the National Incident Management System (NIMS), and issued the No. 8 Homeland Security Presidential Decree in 2003, proposing emergency preparedness for the United States' national emergencies to effectively prevent all types of emergencies. And in 2011, it began implementing the National Strategic Risk Assessment (SNRA).
The United Kingdom has established an integrated emergency management system. In 2001, it launched the â€œContingency Plan for Domestic Incidentsâ€ to propose a risk assessment of possible hazards and issued â€œRisk: Capabilities to Improve Government Management Risk and Uncertaintyâ€ in 2002. The report started the risk investigation and registration work in 2005 to assess the major disasters and threats that the United Kingdom may face in the next five years. Japan has established information systems and emergency response systems for disaster prevention and mitigation from the central government to local governments. Germany has established a crisis prevention information system.
China has paid more attention to the issue of public safety since the "SARS incident" in 2003, built an emergency management system represented by "one case, three systems," and built a national emergency platform system of "vertical to the end, horizontal to the edge."
In recent years, with the development of new technologies and the promotion of globalization, it has become an international consensus that public safety has been highly valued, and public safety technology innovation and guidance has become an international trend.
In 2015, the United Nations adopted the "2015-2030 Sendai Disaster Risk Reduction Framework" to propose the dramatic reduction of the impact of disasters on the global population, economy, and important infrastructure and services.
The United States issued â€œDisaster Response and Resilience 2030: Strategic Action in the Age of Uncertainty,â€ which will focus on future public safety comprehensive protection focusing on changes in individual roles, protection of key infrastructure, and application of new technologies to determine the goals for future public safety development. For more comprehensive preparation, more accurate prediction, more scientific response and more rapid recovery.
The European Union released the Horizon 2020 Plan, which specifically puts forward the "Safety Society - Safeguarding the Freedom and Security of Europe and Its Citizens" section. It will protect citizens' safety, combat crime and terrorism, and protect people from natural disasters and human-induced incidents. The main research direction.
Japan has identified 13 key scientific and technological innovation directions in the "Basic Science and Technology Plan (2016-2020)", among which the four directions of national security and safety are directly related to public safety.
China's National Outline for Medium- and Long-Term Scientific and Technological Development Planning (2006-2020) systematically studies and deploys public safety science and technology development.
After nearly 10 years of rapid development, the overall level of the four core technologies of public safety in Chinaâ€”risk assessment and prevention technology, monitoring and forecasting and early warning technologies, emergency disposal and rescue technologies, and comprehensive security technologies has exceeded the level of developing countries. However, The international leading level still has a gap of about ten years. Compared with the international level, the technical level of China's public security has formed the basic pattern of â€œlead, run, and followâ€ three runs in parallel, but the vast majority is still in the â€œfollow-upâ€ state (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). Compared with technologically advanced countries, China's basic research results have weaker ability to transform into superior technologies, and technological competition is still at a disadvantage. The scientific and technological innovation system that leads and supports the modernization of national public security governance systems and governance capabilities remains to be improved.
Fig.1 Basic pattern of technical level in China's public security
Figure 2 The gap between the four core technologies of China's public security and the international advanced level
Public Security Technology System
The framework of the public safety science and technology system can be characterized by a triangle, as shown in Figure 3. The three sides of the triangle are: emergencies, disaster-bearing carriers, and emergency management. The three sides of the link are the elements of disasters, including material, energy, and information.
Figure 3 Public Safety Triangle Model
The element of disaster is essentially an objective existence. If the disaster element is supercritical or meets certain trigger conditions, it may lead to emergencies. The main task of the development of public safety science and technology is to achieve public safety protection through research and effective control of emergencies, disaster-bearing carriers, and emergency management.
In response to emergencies, the type, intensity, and spatial and temporal characteristics of the risks, such as the evolution, occurrence, and development of mutations, and the material, energy, and information generated, were studied.
Aiming at disaster-bearing carriers, we will study the status and changes of the disaster-taking carriers and their own evolutionary processes, the possible ontological and/or functional disruptions, and their possible secondary and derivative events.
In response to emergency management, research was conducted to apply human intervention in the above process to prevent or reduce the occurrence of emergencies and weaken its role; to increase the resilience of disaster-bearing carriers, to interrupt the chain of secondary incidents, and to reduce losses; to avoid emergencies The possible recurrence of emergencies and the destruction of the disaster-bearing carriers, as well as excessive costs.
The core technologies in the field of public safety include risk assessment and prevention technologies, monitoring and forecasting and early warning technologies, emergency disposal and rescue technologies, and comprehensive security technologies, as shown in Figure 4.
Risk assessment and prevention technologies are aimed at preventing or reducing the occurrence of emergencies, enhancing the resilience of disaster-bearing carriers and enhancing emergency response capabilities, including risk identification technologies, risk analysis and evaluation technologies, and risk prevention and control technologies. technology;
Monitoring and forecasting and early warning technologies aim at achieving all-round monitoring, accurate positioning, accurate situation prediction and full coverage real-time warning of emergencies, including public safety monitoring and monitoring technologies, unexpected event forecasting technologies, and emergency warning and release technologies. Secondary technology
Emergency treatment and rescue technology aims to achieve effective emergency response to emergencies, including disaster assessment and comprehensive assessment techniques, emergency decision support technologies, emergency site sensing and communication technologies, personnel search and rescue and evacuation and evacuation technologies, and on-site disposal and control technologies. Secondary technologies;
Comprehensive assurance technology aims to provide basic and technical support for public safety prevention and emergency preparedness, monitoring and early warning, emergency treatment and rescue, and recovery and reconstruction, including emergency process and capability assessment technology, public safety data support technology, and public safety standardization and certification. Accredited technologies, public safety experimental tests and simulation technologies, emergency situation construction and deduction techniques, public safety training exercises, and popular science education technologies.
Figure 4 Core Technology System in Public Security
The goals and tasks of public security science and technology development
(I) Development ideas
Adhere to the guidelines of â€œindependent innovation, key leapfrogging, support development, and lead the futureâ€. Based on the current situation, focus on the future, strengthen the application of high technology and comprehensive integration, and strengthen the key to real-time perception prediction, big data analysis and decision making, and multifunctional intelligent emergency equipment. The research and development of technology focuses on â€œsafetyâ€ and â€œintelligenceâ€. It is driven by technological innovation, takes risk prevention as a foothold, and takes effective response and improvement of safety resilience as targets, and builds an all-dimensional, three-dimensional public safety net, system deployment, and focus. Breakthroughs, to achieve the transformation of China's public security from passive response to active protection.
(b) Development goals
We will improve the public safety system, build an all-dimensional, three-dimensional public safety net, and build a safety-guaranteed society.
1. In terms of risk assessment and prevention, existing risks are controllable and future risks are known;
2. In terms of monitoring and forecasting and early warning, information is comprehensively perceived, data is multi-sourced, forecasts are highly intelligent, and accurate warnings are issued;
3. In emergency treatment and rescue, effective emergency command, coordinated emergency response, and efficient emergency response;
4. In the aspect of comprehensive protection, the integrated resilience of cities and communities will be continuously strengthened, the emergency resources will be shared in depth, and the integration of emergency platforms and equipment will be firmly supported.
(III) Key directions
Future-oriented public security complex giant system "risk-prediction-disposal-guarantee" highly-linked and smart, resilient management of major development needs, build a comprehensive three-dimensional public safety net, to achieve cross-domain, cross-level, cross-time, cross-regional Comprehensive public safety protection. The development of public safety science and technology includes the following five key directions.
1. Full cycle and full chain risk assessment and prevention
Develop multi-scale and multi-scale multi-physics integration and systematic risk assessment techniques, multi-hazard coupled disaster-induced process simulation and scenario construction techniques, and potential unknown risk assessment techniques to achieve quantitative, standardized, and systematic risk assessment.
2. Multi-hazard and multi-field collaborative monitoring, forecasting and early warning
Development of public safety simulation prediction technologies that comprehensively consider the interaction of the atmosphere, oceans, biology, and solid earth, comprehensive consideration of the interactions of various disasters, and systematic monitoring and early warning technologies coordinated by multiple industries and multiple fields to achieve comprehensive monitoring and intelligent prediction Accuracy of early warning and integration of monitoring, forecasting and early warning.
3. Cross-regional, cross-level and cross-department integration of emergency response and rescue
Develop multi-functional, integrated emergency on-site treatment and rescue key technologies, rapid evacuation and evacuation technologies, multi-dimensional information real-time transmission technology, public opinion deep analysis technology, virtual simulation technology, personnel search and rescue technology, human injury assessment technology, human-machine- Deep integration of online emergency awareness technology, emergency robot technology, etc. Promote coordination orderliness, enhance rescue capabilities under severe disaster conditions, and achieve high energy efficiency and high efficiency of emergency treatment and rescue.
4. Standardized public safety emergency technical equipment system
In response to the problem of rescue personnel and weak on-site disposal in response to emergencies, around the key equipment and emergency needs of public safety emergency response, basic scientific issues, common key technologies, technical standardization, and industrialization were studied to develop a batch of standardized systems. Complete, intelligentized emergency equipment, and comprehensively improve emergency support capabilities.
5. Integrated Public Security Integrated Support Platform
For business continuity management and cross-industry in-depth integration of public safety, R&D and construction of an integrated public security security platform to achieve a high degree of comprehensive protection for risk assessment and prevention, monitoring, forecasting and early warning, emergency treatment and rescue, and to achieve traffic safety and danger The deep integration of chemicals control, public opinion supervision, anti-terrorism and anti-terrorism, power security, water conservancy safety, and other areas, improve the comprehensive security capabilities of public safety.
(IV) Major Scientific and Technological Research and Engineering Construction Tasks
1. Multi-round coupled, multi-field fusion public safety large-scale simulator
The research will take into consideration the simulation technologies of atmospheric, oceanic, biological, solid-earth interaction and complexity to realize the simulation and expression of the Earth system's various layers, physical and biochemical processes, and interaction coupling mechanisms.
Study risk assessment technologies such as comprehensive index systems, data statistics, and scenario evolution to realize hazardous chemicals, key facilities (dangerous chemical warehouses, urban pipe networks, deep-sea pipelines, transportation hubs, etc.), and important energy sources (electricity, oil, gas) (Hydrogen) and other life cycle management and full chain risk assessment.
Research on large-scale and intensive population risk early warning and evacuation and grooming techniques, large-scale traffic evacuation simulation technologies and emergency traffic assessment techniques, and construction of regional evacuation and evacuation systems.
Study the perception, reproduction, simulation and deduction techniques of major disaster scenarios to achieve effective superposition of digital information and physical field information, and realize simulation and scenario deduction of complex disaster scenarios and their evolutionary processes.
Research on network dissemination and inference technology and simulation-based derivation technology for specific individual identification, tracking, and traceability of anti-terrorism and anti-terrorism to realize event simulation and deduction of online-offline integration.
Research on the simulation technology of public safety issues related to various industrial fields such as power systems and water conservancy systems to realize the multi-event and event chain deduction. Build a large-scale integrated simulator that simulates and simulates the evolution of multiple earth-coupled, multi-domain fusion earth systems.
2. Omnidirectional three-dimensional public safety net
Prepare an all-dimensional, three-dimensional public safety network to implement horizontal node research on risk assessment and prevention, monitoring, forecasting and early warning, emergency response and rescue, and comprehensive protection, as well as traffic safety, hazardous chemicals, public opinion, anti-terrorism, anti-terrorism, and electricity security. , water conservancy safety and other vertical nodes research, realize interconnection and intercommunication between network nodes, make joint efforts to break through the bottleneck of key technological innovations in public safety and R&D of key equipment, and continuously solve the core scientific and technological problems in the field of public safety, realizing the all-round three-dimensional integration of the industry Public safety net.
3. Urban Public Security and Resilience Project
With the accelerating rate of urbanization, there are more large cities, especially large cities, and urban agglomerations. The situation of urban public security has become increasingly severe, and the vulnerability of people gathering places, road traffic, and life pipe networks has increased. For the public risks of high-density personnel gathering areas with cities (towns) as carriers, a behavior bank that meets the characteristics of various types of people in China is established, and a dynamic risk monitoring, identification, and assessment platform based on multi-source data is built. Combining a number of new technologies such as Geographic Information System (GIS), mobile Internet, and the Internet of Things, an intelligent, network-connected urban rapid evacuation and evacuation system has been established. Manage the life cycle of urban planning, lifeline pipe network, important facilities and key sites, form a complete safety assessment system for urban pipe network systems, important facilities and key sites, and build a unified national platform for urban safety management and resilience protection.
4. Public Security Research Base Construction
Build a number of internationally advanced public safety research bases, such as national laboratories, engineering centers, innovation centers, etc., including various types of laboratories that carry out experimental recurrences and coupling mechanisms; conduct primary emergencies, secondary A large-scale experimental research base for the evolution of events and event chains; a public safety testing center and certification base for product testing and equipment; and an experimental verification of core technologies such as simulation, scenario derivation, comprehensive judgment, and decision-making for the entire emergency process. Bases, databases and computing platforms, advanced visualization systems and platforms, etc.
Outlook and Challenges
Looking ahead, emerging technologies such as quantum technology, artificial intelligence, additive manufacturing, micro-nano manufacturing, bio-manufacturing, new energy revolution, new modes of transportation, marine economy, space exploration, and the Internet of Everything will provide a great deal of convenience and advantages for human life. It also brings new risks to public safety. The new situation of economic globalization, aging society, the increase in the intensity and frequency of natural disasters, and terrorism also pose new challenges to public safety in the future.
(I) Assessment of unknown risks
Building risk prediction and prediction tools based on technologies such as Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, simulation, and situational deduction to analyze whether new technologies, new materials, new industries, new policies, etc. may be unbearable or unrecognized. The potential risks, the realization of the pre-judgment of unknown risks and the research and attention of disaster precursor events.
(B) The Future Depth of "Data-Calculation-Inference" Deep Integration
Based on the advanced theory and methods of deep integration of â€œdata-computing-inferenceâ€, monitoring and forecasting and early warning of key locations and facilities, important energy and reserves, major projects, etc. can be realized from the perspective of network nodes; from the perspective of network coverage, It can predict the impact of the new technology revolution and changes in the global landscape on the public security situation and promote the building of a future-oriented public safety response system.
(3) Public Security under the Form of Information Universalization and Internet of Everything
Changes in the areas of computing and communications technologies, such as unlimited data, unlimited storage, and unlimited bandwidth, will become the future trend. The Internet of Things, human-computer interaction, data acquisition-processing-analysis are highly integrated and personalized, and the government-institution-public interaction is highly Collaboration and the flattening of decision-making structures and processes have brought great challenges to the development, governance, and service capabilities of public safety science and technology. To adapt to the new situation and meet new challenges, it is imperative to improve the public security system, build a security-safety society, and protect the development and progress of human society.
This article is a research report on the cross-cutting topic of public safety in China's Engineering Science and Technology 2035 development strategy chaired by Academician Fan Weicheng, published in the Chinese Journal of Engineering Science 201701. Authors Liu Yan, Ni Shunjiang, Weng Wenguo, Fan Weicheng.
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