Optimization and Improvement of CNC Lathe Processing Process

The spindle of the machine tool is the core component of the machine tool. Its function is to drive the tool (grinding wheel) or workpiece rotation to realize machining. The quality of the spindle of the CNC lathe machining machine tool directly affects the surface quality, machining accuracy, and production efficiency of the machined parts produced. Therefore, we want to improve the processing performance of the machine tool, thereby improving the machining quality, machining accuracy, and production efficiency of the machine tool. If we want the machine tool to process a product with better quality that can meet our growing production and living needs, then The process flow of the CNC lathe machining machine tool spindle has a direct impact on the precision and quality of the manufactured machine tool. This paper analyzes and summarizes several important steps in the use of CNC lathe processing, and uses the CNC lathe to process super fine Spindle components of machine tools, for example, through a large number of actual processing and research analysis to optimize the process, put forward process defects and improvement measures, find out the reasons for the impact of machining accuracy and quality, improve production efficiency, and create economic benefits for the company. .

The performance of the machine tool spindle must meet the machining accuracy and efficiency. Some traditional spindle concepts can no longer meet the requirements of the current machine tool spindle. Its speed and accuracy, as well as the matching characteristics of stiffness and power are better, so we must consider the quality. When CNC lathes machine parts, turning parameters and tool path are set through the computer's control system for turning, so the processing quality and efficiency of parts is an important factor in the CNC lathe processing process. With the development of numerical control technology, the processing quality is improving, but there is still a lack of guidance in the process specification of numerical control processing. Therefore, the consistency and stability of product quality cannot be guaranteed. This factor is to a certain degree. The technical development of CNC lathes is constrained. The following is an analysis of the ways in which parts can be effectively changed, from the machining methods and process selection of CNC lathes, line formulation, tool installation, and several other important steps.

First, the technical analysis of processed parts should be accurate

1, the need to process parts of the process to meet the characteristics of several car processing

The design of lathe machining parts and their drawings shall be based on the premise of convenient processing. A uniform datum should be directly used on the drawings and the coordinate dimensions should be given. This facilitates the programming and coordination of various dimensions in the process and The design datum, so as to facilitate the consistency of the detection datum and the programming origin, facilitates the designer to worry about the use characteristics of the product. In the manual programming, it is necessary to calculate the coordinates of the base point and the calculation point. Attention should be paid to whether the work piece is allowed to be sufficiently The conditions of the contour geometry elements are defined in all geometric elements for automatic programming. Process analysis must fully consider the full and reasonable characteristics of each geometric element.

2. The features of the parts to be machined are suitable for the processing of CNC lathes

The first thing to notice is that the part shape and inner hole need to adopt a uniform size and geometry type of tool as much as possible, and minimize the number of times the tool is changed. The quality of processed parts is related to their contour shape and arc radius. Therefore, in the groove fillet can not be too small, because there may be no corresponding tool to match, need to prevent the poor structural properties of the edge of the stress concentration, and thus the life of the parts affected, in order to prevent the repeated installation of the workpiece The dimensions of the two sides of the clips thus forming the process and the position on the contours are asymmetric, and we are trying to align the benchmarks as much as possible in the arrangement process. The corresponding reference hole can be used with a process hole, and the workpiece also has a positioning reference hole. Both of the above methods cannot be implemented. The uniform positioning standard can also consider using the finished surface. The error of double clamping can be reduced.

Second, the use of processing methods and processing procedures to be appropriate

1, choose the appropriate processing method

The suitable processing method in the processing is to ensure that the processing accuracy and the surface roughness of the workpiece can meet the design requirements and standards. When selecting the processing method, the technical requirements for the shape, size, and heat treatment of the parts should be taken into consideration, and the most efficient and most suitable processing method should be selected among the processing methods that can achieve the same level. According to the actual conditions of production equipment, for some holes on the surface of the box to choose reaming method, the larger holes on the surface of the box generally use boring holes, the smaller holes generally use the method of reaming, and we also in the processing According to the actual situation to consider as much as possible to reduce production costs, increase production efficiency and other factors.

2, choose the appropriate processing

When CNC lathes are processed, it is considered whether one or more of the processes can be completed at once in a single installation. The processes are as concentrated as possible. This requires the first analysis of the entire part in the drawing. Can it be installed once? The clamp is completed. If it cannot be reached, the number of clamps and the number of tool changes must be reduced. And in the dividing step, the two factors of machining accuracy and processing efficiency should be taken into consideration. The order of the machining surface of the same workpiece is roughing, semi-finishing, finishing, and all surface roughing and finishing. Proceed.

Third, the development of the optimal processing route

The principle of processing routes should be followed: reduce the tool idle time and ensure the shortest processing route, and reduce the number of invalid program segments; ensure the surface precision and surface roughness of the parts; simplify the numerical calculation in order to reduce the workload of programming; on CNC lathes Some of the point controls only require a higher accuracy of the positioning, and the tool path is not very important. Therefore, a lathe like this is the line with the shortest idle path as the cutter. The distance of the tool in the direction of the axis should be determined. , and this factor is affected by the workpiece length travel.

Fourth, the development of CNC lathe tool installation design and process card

1, the installation of the tool design

The basic guidelines we should consider when setting up the tool are: try to harmonize the process and set the benchmarks to be programmed; the least possible number of times in the fixture, the ability to clamp once on all surfaces Completed; thus to give full play to the effectiveness of CNC lathes, to achieve the purpose of avoiding manual adjustment. In the processing of CNC lathes, it is also necessary to note that when the number of parts to be machined is not large, basic requirements are put forward for the fixture in the numerical control machining: First, the coordinate direction and the coordinate direction of the fixture should be guaranteed to be fixed relative to each other; Pay attention to the relationship between the dimensions of the coordinate system of the machine tool and the parts. In order to save production costs and save some production preparation time.

2, on the development of CNC lathe operation card

Because CNC lathes are relatively expensive and their performance is very good, due to the characteristics of CNC lathes, the corresponding process content is also complex, so it can complete complex tasks. The problem of improving the machining step in the CNC lathe programming is to increase the efficiency. Therefore, the route, tool setting, tool change point and origin, turning parameters, and programming instructions in the main contents of the NC machining process should be considered.

3, on the axis of the improved effect

We have improved the trials on the NC turning process of the machine tool spindle and found that after the optimization of the turning process, we carried out various tests and analysis on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of 100 finished parts. The result is that all the dimensional tolerances are controlled. Within the tolerance range, and the product quality is very good; and its detection of the runout tolerance and the coaxiality tolerance have been respectively controlled within the qualified range of 0.01mm and φ0.005mm, for the follow-up When the process meets the requirements, the roughness of the end face and the outer circle respectively reach the requirements of the drawing; the length dimension is controlled within the tolerance range, the requirements of the enterprise are fully satisfied, and the production efficiency has also been greatly improved, from the original 50 minutes to the present One of 35min.

V. Conclusion

Based on the above research and analysis of the actual situation, the use of CNC lathe machine spindle machining process, according to the actual needs of the production to use a reasonable arrangement of CNC machine tools, in particular, can not casually use CNC machine tools, in actual production, in order to Make the company's CNC machine tool features get the maximum limit to play, so that the company's investment costs get the maximum return. In many years of practice, it has been concluded that the process optimization in CNC machining is not a theory or imagination. It must be derived from the recording, sorting, induction, analysis and summarization of the inadequacies in the work practice, so as to obtain an optimized and improved process flow application. In practice, in order to improve the quality of parts and production efficiency, the economic benefits of enterprises have also been greatly improved.

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